T-0539; Map of New Dungeness, Strait of Juan de Fuca, Washington Ter., 1855





Originator:  Point No Point Treaty Council

Originator:  7999 NE Salish Lane, Kingston, WA 98346 USA

Publication_Date: 10/01/03

Title: T-0539; Map of New Dungeness, Strait of Juan de Fuca, Washington Ter., 1855

Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: map


Georeferenced United States Coast & Geodetic Survey Topographic Sheet T-0539; Map of New Dungeness, Strait of Juan de Fuca, Washington Ter., 1855; Scale: 1:10,000; Surveyor: James S. Lawson

Supplemental_Information:  For a comprehensive historical and technical review of the production and interpretation of early Coast & Geodetic Survey T-sheets please refer to Shalowitz, A.L. 1964. Shore and Sea Boundaries, Volumes 2.  U.S. Department of Commerce, U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey, Washington, DC. This publication is available online at http://chartmaker.ncd.noaa.gov/hsd/shallow.htm

Time_Period_of_Content:  1855

Time_Period_Information:  1855


Calendar_Date: 1855

Currentness_Reference: 1855


Progress: Complete

Maintenance_and_Update_Frequency: None planned



Theme_Keyword: T-sheets

Theme_Keyword: Coastal Survey

Theme_Keyword: Land Cover

Theme_Keyword: Historical

Theme_Keyword: United States Coast and Geodetic Survey


Place_Keyword: Washington State

Place_Keyword: Puget Sound


Stratum_Keyword: Near Shore

Stratum_Keyword: Coast


Temporal_Keyword: 1855


This georeferenced image may be freely downloaded and used. Please give credit to the Puget Sound River History Project, University of Washington.



This georeferenced image may be freely downloaded and used. Please give credit to the Puget Sound River History Project, University of Washington.





Contact_Person: Alan Carter Mortimer


Point No Point Treaty Council


Address_Type: mailing address

Address: 7999 NE Salish Lane

City: Kingston

State_or_Province: WA

Postal_Code: 98346

Country: USA

Contact_Voice_Telephone: (360) 297-6530

Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: (360) 297-3413

Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: alancm@pnptc.org




Horizontal_Positional_Accuracy: No traceable benchmarks


This sheet matches the shoreline of the DRGs fairly well considering the referencing method (see below).  This sheet also contains more detail than the sheets done later that cover a similar area.  The sheet visually matches shoreline of DNR DOQ and USGS DRG.  Caution should be exercised in the use of this t-sheet since the accuracy of the georectification may be less than what has generally been achieved within this project.


To assess an independent check of the accuracy of the registration process, benchmarks located on the T-sheets were compared to published NGS benchmarks that were retraceable to the time of the surveyed T-sheet. (Published NGS benchmark information is located at http://www.ngs.noaa.gov/cgi-bin/datasheet.prl). Only benchmarks that could be established with a high degree of certainty that existed at the time of the original T-sheet survey and were not remounted were used in the final accuracy measurement. If no current benchmarks exist or if the benchmarks have been remounted in relation to the benchmarks on the T-sheet, hard points (areas that would expect little change since the original surveys) were used to give a general indicator of the T-sheet’s registration accuracy in lieu of a more rigorous method. Thus these hard point measurements must be viewed with some caution. It should be stressed that the accuracy assessment was to check the accuracy of the overall registration process, not necessarily the accuracy of the survey itself.


NOTE: Measured distances are rounded to the nearest meter. The hand-drawn representations of benchmarks on the T-sheets are often up to 10 meters in width. To assess an independent check of the accuracy of the registration process, the measured distance is from the NGS-published coordinates to the perceived middle of the benchmark depicted on the T-sheet. In addition, the overall shape of the benchmark symbol is sometimes obscured by other symbology on the T-sheet. Thus, there is a certain level of uncertainty introduced due to the ambiguous location of the benchmark on the T-sheet. 



            No benchmarks can be traced accurately through the historical record, so there is no Horizontal Positional Accuracy measurement.



Technician: Alan Carter Mortimer

Date:  11-28-03


Process_Description:  The georeferencing of T-sheets in the Puget Sound region was funded by the Puget Sound Nearshore Project (PSNERP) http://www.pugetsoundnearshore.org/

Scanned images were obtained from Information Manufacturing Corporation, 7000 Infantry Ridge Road, Suite 200, Manassas, VA 20109 Phone: (703) 393-6866


T-Sheets in the Hood Canal and Strait of Juan de Fuca vicinity were processed by Point No Point Treaty Council (http://www.pnptc.org/) for this project.


The methodology used to georeference the T-sheets was modified from the previous work of Jennifer Burke (NOAA) in the Lower Columbia and Daniels et al (2001). The georeferencing and error assessment process were carried out using ArcGIS 8.3. For additional information concerning the georeferencing method please refer to: http://rocky2.ess.washington.edu/riverhistory/tsheets.php


Datum Shift:


Most T-sheets do not have a current datum represented on them (i.e. NAD 27, NAD 83). Graticules (tics) marking Latitude and Longitude in the early local Puget Sound Datum (PSD) and a later update to North American Datum (NAD) projection are most often present. To calculate the X, Y shift from NAD to NAD 27, X and Y values were used from datum difference tables for survey stations around most of Puget Sound (Patton, 1999). An overall datum shift is usually determined for the area covered by the T-sheet by averaging the shift from a number of survey stations in or nearby that area represented on the T-sheet.


However, this is a very old sheet without any graticules, so it was georeferenced by choosing eight hard points, (points, shoreline direction changes, fencelines that are now road intersections) on DNR digital orthophotos and matching to same places on image of t-539. These hard points were located at the base of Dungeness Spit, either side of Old Town Spit, a lake/pond at the eastern edge of the t-sheet and a field corner near the middle of the t-sheet. Also one point in common between t-539 and georectified t-1168 (East Base) was used in the georectification.




            Eight hardpoints were used for registration.  This method resulted in an RMS of 10.33465.


The image was then reprojected to UTM ZONE 10N NAD83/HARN using a rigorous transformation.



Several factors that can introduce error into the registration process include:











 Daniels, R. C. and R.H. Huxford. 2001. An error assessment of vector data derived from scanned National Ocean Service topographic sheets. Journal of Coastal Research 17: 611 – 619.


Patton, R.S., 1999. Datum Differences: Atlantic, Gulf, and Pacific Coast of the United States. U.S. Department of Commerce, U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey, Washington D.C. (Original publication: 1936)







Grid_Coordinate_System_Name: Universal Transverse Mercator


UTM_Zone_Number: 10


Scale_Factor_at_Central_Meridian: 0.999600

Longitude_of_Central_Meridian: -123.000000

Latitude_of_Projection_Origin: 0.000000

False_Easting: 500000.000000

False_Northing: 0.000000


Planar_Coordinate_Encoding_Method: row and column


Abscissa_Resolution: 3.000000

Ordinate_Resolution: 3.000000

Planar_Distance_Units: meters


Horizontal_Datum_Name: North American Datum of 1983

Ellipsoid_Name: Geodetic Reference System 80

Semi-major_Axis: 6378137.000000

Denominator_of_Flattening_Ratio: 298.257222


Resource_Description: Downloadable Data





Metadata_Date: 20020723




Contact_Person: Brian Collins, Amir Sheikh


Department of Earth and Space Sciences, University of Washington


Address_Type: mailing address

Address: Department of Earth and Space Sciences

Address: Box 351310

Address: University of Washington

City: Seattle

State_or_Province: WA

Postal_Code: 98195

Country: USA

Contact_Voice_Telephone: (206) 616-6584

Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: (206) 543-0489

Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: bcollins@u.washington.edu

Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: asheikh@u.washington.edu

Metadata_Standard_Name: FGDC Content Standards for Digital Geospatial Metadata

Metadata_Standard_Version: FGDC-STD-001-1998

Metadata_Time_Convention: local time