T-2229; Sheet No. 8, Topography of Washington Sound, Wash, Orcas Shaw and Other Islands, 1895

Metadata:


Identification_Information:

Citation:

Citation_Information:

Originator:  Puget Sound River History Project

Originator: Department of Earth & Space Sciences, University of Washington, Box 351310

Originator: Seattle, WA 98195

Publication_Date: 10/01/03

Title: T-2229; Sheet No. 8, Topography of Washington Sound, Wash, Orcas Shaw and Other Islands, 1895

Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: map

Abstract:

Georeferenced United States Coast & Geodetic Survey Topographic Sheet T-2229; Sheet No. 8, Topography of Washington Sound, Wash, Orcas Shaw and Other Islands, 1895; Scale: 1:10,000; Surveyor: J. J. Gilbert

Supplemental_Information:  For a comprehensive historical and technical review of the production and interpretation of early Coast & Geodetic Survey T-sheets please refer to Shalowitz, A.L. 1964. Shore and Sea Boundaries, Volumes 2.  U.S. Department of Commerce, U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey, Washington, DC. This publication is available online at http://chartmaker.ncd.noaa.gov/hsd/shallow.htm

Time_Period_of_Content:  1895

Time_Period_Information:  1895

Single_Date/Time:

Calendar_Date: 1895

Currentness_Reference: 1895

Status:

Progress: Complete

Maintenance_and_Update_Frequency: None planned

Keywords:

Theme:

Theme_Keyword: T-sheets

Theme_Keyword: Coastal Survey

Theme_Keyword: Land Cover

Theme_Keyword: Historical

Theme_Keyword: United States Coast and Geodetic Survey

Place:

Place_Keyword: Washington State

Place_Keyword: Puget Sound

Stratum:

Stratum_Keyword: Near Shore

Stratum_Keyword: Coast

Temporal:

Temporal_Keyword: 1895

Access_Constraints:

This georeferenced image may be freely downloaded and used. Please give credit to the Puget Sound River History Project, University of Washington.

http://riverhistory.ess.washington.edu

Use_Constraints:

This georeferenced image may be freely downloaded and used. Please give credit to the Puget Sound River History Project, University of Washington.

http://riverhistory.ess.washington.edu

Point_of_Contact:

Contact_Information:

Contact_Person_Primary:

Contact_Person: Brian Collins, Amir Sheikh

Contact_Organization:

Department of Earth and Space Sciences, University of Washington

Contact_Address:

Address_Type: mailing address

Address: Department of Earth and Space Sciences

Address: Box 351310

Address: University of Washington

City: Seattle

State_or_Province: WA

Postal_Code: 98195

Country: USA

Contact_Voice_Telephone: (206) 616-6584

Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: (206) 543-0489

Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: bcollins@u.washington.edu

Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: asheikh@u.washington.edu

 


Data_Quality_Information:

Positional_Accuracy:

Horizontal_Positional_Accuracy: 11 meters (using 20 reliable benchmarks)

 

The t-sheet matches well with the DRG along much of the coastline.  The largest noticeable discrepancies were on the order of 20 meters, but this was in localized and less reliable places.  Good edge matching with T2231.

 

To assess an independent check of the accuracy of the registration process, benchmarks located on the T-sheets were compared to published NGS benchmarks that were retraceable to the time of the surveyed T-sheet. (Published NGS benchmark information is located at http://www.ngs.noaa.gov/cgi-bin/datasheet.prl). Only benchmarks that could be established with a high degree of certainty that existed at the time of the original T-sheet survey and were not remounted were used in the final accuracy measurement. If no current benchmarks exist or if the benchmarks have been remounted in relation to the benchmarks on the T-sheet, hard points (areas that would expect little change since the original surveys) were used to give a general indicator of the T-sheet’s registration accuracy in lieu of a more rigorous method. Thus these hard point measurements must be viewed with some caution. It should be stressed that the accuracy assessment was to check the accuracy of the overall registration process, not necessarily the accuracy of the survey itself.

 

NOTE: Measured distances are rounded to the nearest meter. The hand-drawn representations of benchmarks on the T-sheets are often up to 10 meters in width. To assess an independent check of the accuracy of the registration process, the measured distance is from the NGS-published coordinates to the perceived middle of the benchmark depicted on the T-sheet. In addition, the overall shape of the benchmark symbol is sometimes obscured by other symbology on the T-sheet. Thus, there is a certain level of uncertainty introduced due to the ambiguous location of the benchmark on the T-sheet. 

 

Horizontal_Positional_Accuracy_Report:

Twenty-six datasheets were found matching benchmarks noted on this t-sheet.  One of these datasheets was for a lighthouse visible on the map but monumented in 1940 – the nearby benchmark as noted on the map did not have a datasheet.  Five others were mounumented after t-sheet production.  The others were all monumented in 1897 – the same year as the mapping.  So the average horizontal positional accuracy for the other 20 benchmarks is 10.595 meters.

 

Station Name

PID

Current Survey Control NAD83

Error Distance

 Longitude

 Latitude

DICK 2

TR2234

123 03 15.14843

48 37 06.47935

18.6

JONES RESET

TR2236

123 03 02.11034

48 36 43.26458

13.6

SPRING

TR2239

123 02 19.33534

48 36 38.16276

11.3

VIEW 1894

TR2240

123 02 17.79244

48 36 43.66898

9.7

FAIRVIEW RESET

TR2216

123 01 50.17760

48 37 27.45521

9.2

LAUREL 1894

TR2207

123 01 23.89329

48 36 33.70164

11.5

WEDGE RESET

TR2229

123 00 35.69594

48 36 50.73312

11.4

DEER RESET

TR2103

123 00 00.44519

48 36 58.23518

17.5

TABLE RESET

TR2107

122 59 30.35685

48 36 19.17865

12.3

POLE PASS LIGHT

TR2100

122 59 25.51023

48 36 06.18405

14.1

STONE RESET

TR2072

122 58 43.07170

48 35 58.58169

19.5

DOUBLE 1894

TR2094

122 58 18.84596

48 36 32.26448

6.3

VICTIM RESET

TR2069

122 58 28.51124

48 36 50.05448

5.1

BAY 1894

TR2081

122 59 02.08066

48 37 19.26919

5.6

DAISY RESET

TR2133

122 59 10.53170

48 38 17.68843

6.4

SPLIT 1894

TR2135

122 58 08.82109

48 37 45.56517

9.4

BUSH 1894

TR2142

122 57 28.70343

48 37 37.57326

-

ROOT 1894

TR2080

122 57 22.06730

48 37 02.41730

5.7

GOLDEN 1894

TR2084

122 57 17.57082

48 36 28.24378

10.3

RAG 1894

TR2085

122 57 12.00176

48 36 10.66415

10.8

BROKEN RESET

TR2108

122 58 00.08991

48 35 42.76454

12.2

WASP PASSAGE

TR2068

122 58 36.46393

48 35 42.44905

4

NARROW 1894

TR2102

122 59 15.53297

48 35 30.09698

11.4

NECK RESET

TR2224

123 00 45.05556

48 35 13.18712

6

LEAD RESET

TR2214

123 00 59.57417

48 34 48.98933

18

EGG 2

TR2105

122 59 56.93441

48 34 42.37840

5.1

 

           

Lineage:

Technician: Joanna Marsolek

Date:  9-25-03

Process_Step:

Process_Description:  The georeferencing of T-sheets in the Puget Sound region was funded by the Puget Sound Nearshore Project (PSNERP) http://www.pugetsoundnearshore.org/

Scanned images were obtained from University of Washington Libraries at http://www.wsulibs.wsu.edu/holland/masc/sanjuanindex.html

 

The methodology used to georeference the T-sheets was modified from the previous work of Jennifer Burke (NOAA) in the Lower Columbia and Daniels et al (2001). The georeferencing and error assessment process were carried out using Erdas Imagine 8.6 and ArcGIS 8.3. For additional information concerning the georeferencing method please refer to: http://rocky2.ess.washington.edu/riverhistory/tsheets.php

 

Datum Shift:

 

Most T-sheets do not have a current datum represented on them (i.e. NAD 27, NAD 83). Graticules (tics) marking Latitude and Longitude in the early local Puget Sound Datum (PSD) and a later update to North American Datum (NAD) projection are most often present. To calculate the X, Y shift from NAD to NAD 27, X and Y values were used from datum difference tables for survey stations around most of Puget Sound (Patton, 1999). An overall datum shift was determined for the area covered by the T-sheet by averaging the shift from a number of survey stations in or nearby that area represented on the T-sheet.

 

The following survey stations were used to calculate the datum shift:

 

Morse Island, 1894

Maple, 1894

Lawrence, 1854

Obstruction, 1854

 

            Registration:

 

For georeferencing, tics were used only surrounding areas that depicted nearshore features on the T-sheet. This was mainly done to hasten the overall process due to the magnitude of the scope of the project while maintaining the best control around areas of interest. The sheets were then rectified using a 1st order polynomial transformation. Points that produced relatively high RMS values, as well as tic points that consistently fell outside of 4.5 meters (on a 1:10,000 scale T-sheet) of their projected UTM coordinates were omitted.

 

            The following tic marks were used for georeferencing the initial resample:

 

 

Longitude

Latitude

 

 

deg

min

deg

min

1

123

0

48

40

2

122

59

48

40

3

122

58

48

40

4

122

57

48

40

5

123

1

48

39

6

123

0

48

39

7

122

59

48

39

8

122

58

48

39

9

122

57

48

39

10

122

56

48

39

11

123

2

48

38

12

123

1

48

38

13

123

0

48

38

14

122

59

48

38

15

122

58

48

38

16

122

57

48

38

17

122

56

48

38

18

122

55

48

38

19

123

3

48

37

20

123

2

48

37

21

123

1

48

37

22

123

0

48

37

23

122

59

48

37

24

122

58

48

37

25

122

57

48

37

26

122

56

48

37

27

123

5

48

36

28

123

4

48

36

29

123

3

48

36

30

123

2

48

36

31

123

1

48

36

32

123

0

48

36

33

122

59

48

36

34

122

58

48

36

35

123

4

48

35

36

123

3

48

35

37

123

2

48

35

38

123

1

48

35

39

123

0

48

35

40

122

59

48

35

41

123

2

48

34

42

123

1

48

34

43

123

0

48

34

 

Two resamples were performed on this data.  Overall RMS was 0.0595 and individual RMS ranged from 0.04 to 0.12.  Relative to the majority of tiffs, all the non-San Juan Islands tiffs, these values are significantly higher.  This is due to the San Juan tiffs having come from sid files and having a much higher resolution.   The RMS is in pixels.  Two points, 2 and 3, that had RMS values among the highest and that were well outside mapping extent were removed.  This did not improve individual RMS values significantly, but because overall RMS was reduced some this resample was maintained for the final tiff.

 

 

Several factors that can introduce error into the registration process include:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References:

 

 Daniels, R. C. and R.H. Huxford. 2001. An error assessment of vector data derived from scanned National Ocean Service topographic sheets. Journal of Coastal Research 17: 611 – 619.

 

Patton, R.S., 1999. Datum Differences: Atlantic, Gulf, and Pacific Coast of the United States. U.S. Department of Commerce, U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey, Washington D.C. (Original publication: 1936)

 

 


Spatial_Reference_Information:

Horizontal_Coordinate_System_Definition:

Planar:

Grid_Coordinate_System:

Grid_Coordinate_System_Name: Universal Transverse Mercator

Universal_Transverse_Mercator:

UTM_Zone_Number: 10

Transverse_Mercator:

Scale_Factor_at_Central_Meridian: 0.999600

Longitude_of_Central_Meridian: -123.000000

Latitude_of_Projection_Origin: 0.000000

False_Easting: 500000.000000

False_Northing: 0.000000

Planar_Coordinate_Information:

Planar_Coordinate_Encoding_Method: row and column

Coordinate_Representation:

Abscissa_Resolution: 3.000000

Ordinate_Resolution: 3.000000

Planar_Distance_Units: meters

Geodetic_Model:

Horizontal_Datum_Name: North American Datum of 1983

Ellipsoid_Name: Geodetic Reference System 80

Semi-major_Axis: 6378137.000000

Denominator_of_Flattening_Ratio: 298.257222

Denominator_of_Flattening_Ratio: 294.978698


Distribution_Information:

Resource_Description: Downloadable Data

Standard_Order_Process:

Digital_Form:

Digital_Transfer_Information:


Metadata_Reference_Information:

Metadata_Date: 20020723

Metadata_Contact:

Contact_Information:

Contact_Person_Primary:

Contact_Person: Brian Collins, Amir Sheikh

Contact_Organization:

Department of Earth and Space Sciences, University of Washington

Contact_Address:

Address_Type: mailing address

Address: Department of Earth and Space Sciences

Address: Box 351310

Address: University of Washington

City: Seattle

State_or_Province: WA

Postal_Code: 98195

Country: USA

Contact_Voice_Telephone: (206) 616-6584

Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: (206) 543-0489

Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: bcollins@u.washington.edu

Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: asheikh@u.washington.edu

Metadata_Standard_Name: FGDC Content Standards for Digital Geospatial Metadata

Metadata_Standard_Version: FGDC-STD-001-1998

Metadata_Time_Convention: local time